Certificate revocation lists¶
A certificate revocation list (CRL) provides a list of certificates that have been revoked. A client application, such as a web browser, can use a CRL to check a server’s authenticity. A server application, such as Apache or OpenVPN, can use a CRL to deny access to clients that are no longer trusted.
Publish the CRL at a publicly accessible location (eg,
http://example.com/intermediate.crl.pem). Third-parties can fetch the CRL
from this location to check whether any certificates they rely on have been
Some applications vendors have deprecated CRLs and are instead using the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP).
Prepare the configuration file¶
When a certificate authority signs a certificate, it will normally encode the
CRL location into the certificate. Add
crlDistributionPoints to the
appropriate sections. In our case, add it to the
[ server_cert ] section.
[ server_cert ] # ... snipped ... crlDistributionPoints = URI:http://example.com/intermediate.crl.pem
Create the CRL¶
# cd /root/ca # openssl ca -config intermediate/openssl.cnf \ -gencrl -out intermediate/crl/intermediate.crl.pem
CRL OPTIONS section of the
ca man page contains more information
on how to create CRLs.
You can check the contents of the CRL with the
# openssl crl -in intermediate/crl/intermediate.crl.pem -noout -text
No certificates have been revoked yet, so the output will state
You should re-create the CRL at regular intervals. By default, the CRL expires
after 30 days. This is controlled by the
default_crl_days option in the
[ CA_default ] section.
Revoke a certificate¶
Let’s walk through an example. Alice is running the Apache web server and has a private folder of heart-meltingly cute kitten pictures. Alice wants to grant her friend, Bob, access to this collection.
Bob creates a private key and certificate signing request (CSR).
$ cd /home/bob $ openssl genrsa -out email@example.com 2048 $ openssl req -new -key firstname.lastname@example.org \ -out email@example.com You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request. ----- Country Name [XX]:US State or Province Name :California Locality Name :San Francisco Organization Name :Bob Ltd Organizational Unit Name : Common Name :firstname.lastname@example.org Email Address :
Bob sends his CSR to Alice, who then signs it.
# cd /root/ca # openssl ca -config intermediate/openssl.cnf \ -extensions usr_cert -notext -md sha256 \ -in email@example.com \ -out firstname.lastname@example.org Sign the certificate? [y/n]: y 1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]: y
Alice verifies that the certificate is valid:
# openssl verify -CAfile intermediate/certs/ca-chain.cert.pem \ email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org: OK
index.txt file should contain a new entry.
V 160420124740Z 1001 unknown ... /CNemail@example.com
Alice sends Bob the signed certificate. Bob installs the certificate in his web browser and is now able to access Alice’s kitten pictures. Hurray!
Sadly, it turns out that Bob is misbehaving. Bob has posted Alice’s kitten pictures to Hacker News, claiming that they’re his own and gaining huge popularity. Alice finds out and needs to revoke his access immediately.
# cd /root/ca # openssl ca -config intermediate/openssl.cnf \ -revoke firstname.lastname@example.org Enter pass phrase for intermediate.key.pem: secretpassword Revoking Certificate 1001. Data Base Updated
The line in
index.txt that corresponds to Bob’s certificate now begins with
R. This means the certificate has been revoked.
R 160420124740Z 150411125310Z 1001 unknown ... /CNemail@example.com
After revoking Bob’s certificate, Alice must re-create the CRL.
Server-side use of the CRL¶
For client certificates, it’s typically a server-side application (eg, Apache) that is doing the verification. This application needs to have local access to the CRL.
In Alice’s case, she can add the
SSLCARevocationPath directive to her Apache
configuration and copy the CRL to her web server. The next time that Bob
connects to the web server, Apache will check his client certificate against the
CRL and deny access.
Similarly, OpenVPN has a
crl-verify directive so that it can block clients
that have had their certificates revoked.
Client-side use of the CRL¶
For server certificates, it’s typically a client-side application (eg, a web browser) that performs the verification. This application must have remote access to the CRL.
If a certificate was signed with an extension that includes
crlDistributionPoints, a client-side application can read this information
and fetch the CRL from the specified location.
The CRL distribution points are visible in the certificate X509v3 details.
# openssl x509 -in cute-kitten-pictures.example.com.cert.pem -noout -text X509v3 CRL Distribution Points: Full Name: URI:http://example.com/intermediate.crl.pem